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What are the factors that affect the processing effect of optical tools when processing ultra-precision parts?


Ultra-precision machining technology was proposed in the 1960s. It is an important way to improve the performance, quality, working life and reliability of electromechanical products, as well as the ability to save energy. Optical tool machining is essential in the ultra-precision machining process. Process!

Generally, an ultra-precision machining refers to a processing technology with a machining error of less than 0.1m and a surface roughness less than Ra0.025Ixm, also known as sub-micron processing. The level of ultra-precision machining technology is one of the important signs of a country's manufacturing industry.

So what are the factors that affect the quality of optical diamond tools in ultra-precision machining?

1. Processing mechanism

In the traditional machining methods, ultra-precision cutting of optical diamond tools and ultra-precision grinding of diamond powder grinding wheels all occupy important positions. In non-traditional processing, there are various methods such as high-energy processing such as electron beam, ion beam, and laser beam, microblogging processing, and ultrasonic processing.

2.Machined materials

The material requirements for ultra-precision machining parts meet various requirements. For example, the material being processed is required to have uniform texture, stable performance, no external and internal micro defects, and no impurities; its physical and mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, hardness, elongation, elastic modulus, thermal conductivity, and expansion coefficient, should Reach a certain order of magnitude; in the process of smelting, casting, rolling, heat treatment and other materials, the slag filtration, rolling direction, temperature, etc. should be strictly controlled, so that the material is pure, the grain size is uniform, non-directional, and can meet Chemical, mechanical and other performance requirements.

3. Processing tools

The machining tools for ultra-precision machining are mainly tools and molds. Ultra-precision cutting with optical diamond tools requires attention to the ultra-precision sharpening of diamond tools, whose population has a blunt circle radius of 2-4 nm. At present, the abrasive tools mainly use ultra-precise diamond powder grinding wheels, which have problems such as abrasive particle size, adhesives, dressing and so on.

4.Working environment

In addition to the above factors in the ultra-precision machining process, the working environment has a great impact on the processing quality. Therefore, the working environment is a necessary condition to ensure the processing quality. The working environment mainly has requirements for temperature, purification, and vibration prevention. The impact of environmental temperature changes on the accuracy of the machine tool is particularly significant. Processing errors caused by thermal factors, including environmental temperature changes, account for (40 70)% of the total processing error. The mixing of dust can scratch the surface of the workpiece and affect its surface quality; If vibration occurs during processing, it will cause streaks or cloth-like marks on the processed surface of the workpiece, which will significantly reduce the surface finish.